Adult Education Academy

Prof. Dr. Borut Mikulec

Prof. Dr. Borut Mikulec is associate professor of adult and continuing education at the Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana.

  • the role of transnational organisations in education policy
  • international and comparative adult education
  • the policy in adult education
  • profession-alization of adult educators
  • continuing vocational education and training
  • and citizenship education

CG 3: Adult education for active democratic 

Co-Moderators: tba

Efforts towards active and democratic citizenship are one of the “classic” themes in adult education theory and practice. Many adult educators, especially those who associated adult education with social movements, recognised adult education as major force for social change that can make a significant contribution to maintaining democracy and lead to emancipation by adults learning the principles of democratic reasoning, active citizenship, civic competence and communicative action. In this sense democratic society is a learning society.

Furthermore, governments around the globe as well as international intergovernmental organisations (IIOs) (e.g. EU, UNESCO, OECD) in their policies strive for “active”, “democratic”, “European” and/or “global” citizenship with which they promote values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law and fight against extremism, violence, racism, discrimination and xenophobia.

However, many authors and researchers find it difficult to define and conceptualise citizenship education – some seeing it as “citizenships as status”, “citizenships as activity/practice” or “citizenship as identity”, others distinguish between citizenship practices that are either socializing or transformative etc. – because citizenship is a dynamic, contextual, contested and multidimensional concept.

Therefore, with different practices, policies and conceptualisations of active and democratic citizenship related to adult education existing around the globe, this comparative group will elaborate their commonalities and differences in a comparative perspective.


  1. MIKULEC, B. (2021): The influence of international intergovernmental organisations on Slovenian adult education policies. International journal of lifelong education, 40(1), 37-52.
  2. GUIMARÃES, P., & MIKULEC, B. (2021): The paradox of utilitarian recognition of prior learning: the cases of Portugal and Slovenia. European journal for research on the education and learning of adults, 12(1), 109-122.
  3. KOŠMERL, T., & MIKULEC, B. (2021): You have to run it like a companyʹ: the marketisation of adult learning and education in Germany and Slovenia. European journal for research on the education and learning of adults, 12(1), 47-63.
  4. SCHWARZ, J., & MIKULEC, B. (2020): The role of organisations in the professionalisation of adult educators in Germany and Slovenia. Andragogical Studies, 2, 9-32.
  5. MIKULEC, B. (2019): Competences of adult education professionals in the European and Slovene context. Journal of adult and continuing education, 25(1), 25-44.
  6. MIKULEC, B. (2018): Normative presumptions of the European Union's adult education policy. Studies in the education of adults, 50(2), 133-151.
  7. MIKULEC, B. (2017): Impact of the Europeanisation of education: qualifications frameworks in Europe. European educational research journal, 16(4), 455-473.



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